WA 0812-9318-5185 | Jual Alloxan monohydrate merk Sangon kemasan 5 Gram

Alloxan monohydrate

Synonym: 2,4,5,6(1H,3H)-Pyrimidinetetrone, 2,4,5,6-Tetraoxypyrimidine, 5,6-Dioxyuracil

Catalogue Number            : A0216

CAS Number                    : 2244-11-3

MDL                                 : MFCD00149399

Formula                            : C4H2N2O4 · H2O

Formula Weight                 : 160.08

Storage Temperature        : 2-8°C

 

Alloxan adalah senyawa kimia paling menonjol yang digunakan dalam penelitian diabetogenik. Dalam penelitian biasanya digunakan untuk induksi diabetes tipe 1. Alloxan adalah turunan urea yang menyebabkan nekrosis sel-sel β pada pulau pankreas. Reagen Alloxan banyak digunakan untuk menginduksi diabetes eksperimental pada hewan seperti kelinci, tikus, mencit dan anjing dengan berbagai tingkat keparahan penyakit dengan memvariasikan dosis alloxan yang digunakan.

 

Sifat Kimia

  • Nama kimia alloxan adalah 2,4,5,6 tetraoxy pyrimidine; 2, 4, 5, 6- pyrimidinetetrone, yaitu turunan pirimidin teroksigenasi sebagai alloxan hydrate pada larutan cairan.
  • Alloxan dibuat dengan mengoksidasi asam urat oleh asam nitrat dan bentuk monohidratnya secara sinambung dibuat dengan mengoksidasi asam barbiturat oleh kromium oksida. Senyawa ini telah dinyatakan memiliki aksi diabetogenik jika dimasukkan secara intravena, intraperitoneal atau subcutaneous. Dosis alloxan yang dibutuhkan untuk menginduksi diabetes tergantung pada spesies dan jalur administrasinya. Sebagai informasi tambahan, alloxan ini non-toksik pada sel beta manusia, meski dalam dosis tinggi sekalipun, karena manusia memiliki mekanisme penggunaan glukosa yang berbeda dibandingkan dengan hewan pengerat/rodensia.

 

Tahap induksi diabetes

Alloxan menginduksi rangsangan gula darah dalam tiga tahap ketika diinjeksikan ke hewan coba. Fase pertama yang terjadi dalam beberapa menit pertama setelah pemberian alloxan adalah fase hipoglikemia transien yang berlangsung maksimal selama 30 menit. Dalam fase kecil ini respon hipoglikemik dinyatakan sebagai hasil stimulasi sekresi insulin yang meningkatkan konsentrasi insulin dalam plasma. Mekanisme di balik fase pertama hiperinsulinemia ini mungkin berupa peningkatan sementara ketersediaan ATP karena penghambatan fosforilasi glukosa melalui penghambatan glukokinase

Fase kedua terjadi setelah 1 jam pemberian alloxan dan menyebabkan peningkatan konsentrasi glukosa darah. Selain itu, konsentrasi insulin plasma menurun pada waktu yang bersamaan. Ini adalah fase hiperglikemik pertama selama 2-4 jam, setelah kontak pertama sel beta pankreas dengan aloksan. Fase hiperglikemik ini adalah hasil dari penghambatan sekresi insulin dari sel beta pankreas, karena toksisitas sel beta.

Fase ketiga juga merupakan fase hipoglikemia yaitu sekitar 4-8 jam setelah injeksi alloksan, yang berlangsung selama beberapa jam. Perubahan yang terjadi selama fase ini tidak dapat diubah

 

Mekanisme Kerja

Penggunaan alloxan memicu peningkatan sekresi insulin secara tiba-tiba dengan ada atau tidak adanya glukosa dan pelepasan insulin ini terjadi dalam durasi yang singkat diikuti oleh penekanan lengkap dari respon islet terhadap glukosa bahkan ketika menggunakan glukosa dengan konsentrasi tinggi. Selanjutnya, fitur penting dari aksi alloxsan dalam pankreas didahului oleh penyerapan secara cepat oleh sel beta pankreas. Selain itu, dalam sel beta pankreas, proses reduksi terjadi dengan adanya agen pereduksi seperti reduksi glutathione (GSH), sistein, askorbat dan kelompok sulfhydryl terikat protein (-SH).

INDOGEN mensuplai reagen Alloxan dari merk TCI Jepang dengan kualitas tinggi dan harga terjangkau:

BrandCatalogueDescriptionPacking
SangonA600019-0005Alloxan, monohydrate5 G
Reagent Grade CAS : [2244-11-3]
TCIA0216Alloxan Monohydrate25 G
CAS RN: 2244-11-3

 

Alloxan is a toxin that selectively eliminates pancreatic β-cells in mice, rats, and certain other animals, and is used to model type 1 diabetes in humans. Reduction of alloxan within β-cells precedes the generation of reactive oxygen species, which in turn contribute to β-cell death. The dose of alloxan needed to destroy beta cells, and thus induce diabetes, depends on the animal species, route of administration, and nutritional status

Alloxan is an oxygenated pyrimidine and toxic analog of glucose. Alloxan destroys β cells and is used in research models to induce diabetes. This compound does not affect human cells.

Alloxan monohydrate is a hydrated form of Alloxan, which has been shown to destroy β cells. Alloxan is also used in research models to induce diabetes.

Alloxan which is chemically known as 5,5-dihydroxyl pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione is an organic compound, a urea derivative, a carcinogen and cytotoxic glucose analog [1]. The compound has the molecular formulae, C4H2N2O4 and a relative molecular mass of 142.06. Alloxan is one of the common diabetogenic agents often used to assess the antidiabetic potential of both pure compounds and plant extracts in studies involving diabetes. Among the known diabetogenic agents which include dithizone, monosodium glutamate, gold thioglucose, high fructose load, high glucose load and anti-insulin serum; alloxan and streptozotocin (STZ) are the most widely used in diabetes studies. The current average cost of one gram of alloxan and STZ are respectively 1.5 and 200 US dollars respectively. Due to relative affordability and availability, one will logically expect that alloxan will be more used compared to STZ [2]. However, a literature survey and sub meta-analysis that we carried out on the use of both compounds in experimental diabetes studies conducted within the last one and half decade (2000–2016) suggested otherwise (Table 1). Analysis of the data obtained showed that 30.3% of the studies used alloxan while 57.9% made used of STZ as a diabetogenic agent, and others which used glucose, fructose and genetic diabetic mice constituted the remaining 11.8% (Table 1).

 

2. Alloxan-induced diabetes

Alloxan-induced diabetes is a form of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus that occurs as a result of alloxan administration or injection to animals [78], [79]. It has been successfully induced in a variety of animal species; rabbits, mice, rats, monkeys, cats and dogs [80], [81]. Alloxan has been administered in single or multiple doses, through different routes (intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous); with single intraperitoneal administration apparently the most employed mode. The dosage of the drug also varies across studies, ranging between 90 and 200 mg/kg of body weight (BW), with 150 mg/kg BW being the most frequently used dosage. Animal species, route of administration and nutritional status have been considered to play a role in determining the dose of alloxan appropriate for induction of diabetes [2]. However, single intraperitoneal administration of the drug at 170–200 mg/kg BW appears to be most effective [2].

Alloxan was first isolated by Brugnatelli in 1818 and initially described by Frederick Wohler and Justin Liebig in 1838 [83]. Alloxan causes diabetes by a mechanism which basically involves partial degradation of the beta (β) cells of pancreatic islets and subsequent compromise in the quality and quantity of insulin produced by these cells. Its use as a diabetogenic drug in experimental animals was first reported by Dunn and McLetchie in their study in which they successfully induced diabetes in experimental rabbits [78]. Thereafter, several authors have used alloxan-induced diabetes model as a “study tool” to elucidate the pathophysiology of the disease and much more as a “search engine” for antidiabetic compounds with better therapeutic characteristics.

The model employs two distinct pathological effects which include selective inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which promotes selective necrosis of beta cells of the pancreas. Both effects collectively result in a pathophysiological state of insulin-dependent diabetes or type 1-like diabetes mellitus in cells [78], [84]. The former is associated with specific inhibition of a pancreatic glucose sensor enzyme, glucokinase by alloxan whereas the latter is rather connected with the redox cycling ability of alloxan which results in ROS generation. More importantly, both effects have been linked to the chemical properties of alloxan as well as its structure.

Store at +4°C